The Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan is leased by the Kazakh government to Russia until 2050. The Baikonur Cosmodrome is managed jointly by the Russian Federal Space Agency and the Russian Space Forces (tnx Wikipedia). Some stations with Russian callsigns have been QRV from Baikonur. Known callsigns are listed below. Bill Moore, NC1L, of the ARRL DXCC Desk, confirms that, for DXCC purposes, these stations count for Kazakhstan.

Callsign Date QRV
R55SAT October, 2012
R50YG April, 2011
R50SK April, 2011
R50KEDR April, 2011
R3MIR/7 April, 1990

Thanks are due to Bill Moore, NC1L, of the ARRL DXCC Desk.